Common in dense stands, chiefly on the south and west shores of the island. No doubt an important element in hydrarch succession along the southern shore, where it forms dense stands in association with Annona glabra (55. Annonaceae). Throughout tropical America. In Panama, known from tropical moist forest in the Canal Zone, Bocas del Toro, San Blas, Panama, and Darien and from tropical wet forest in Colón (Miguel de la Borda).